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Published on December 15th, 2017

Cryptography

The Cryptopals Crypto Challenges: Set 1 - Implement Repeating-Key XOR

Write a method that encrypts messages using the Repeating-Key XOR method with a given key.

2 minutes read

This is the fifth challenge of Set 1 in The Cryptopals Crypto Challenges website. Previously, I spoke about these challenges and provided walkthroughs for the previous challenges, if you haven't read them, here are the links:

For this challenge, you have to implement a Repeating-Key XOR method to encrypt the following message:

    
    Burning 'em, if you ain't quick and nimble
    I go crazy when I hear a cymbal
    

With a given key:

    
    ICE
    

The final message should look like this:

    
    0b3637272a2b2e63622c2e69692a23693a2a3c6324202d623d63343c2a26226324272765272
    a282b2f20430a652e2c652a3124333a653e2b2027630c692b20283165286326302e27282f
    

If you've already understood the concept of XOR and had no issues implementing both Fixed XOR Cipher and Single-Byte XOR Cipher, then this should be a piece of cake for you when it comes to implementing Repeating-Key XOR Cipher.

How does this work?

With Repeating-Key XOR, you'll sequentially apply each byte of the key (which is "ICE", in this case); the first byte of plaintext will be XOR'd against "I", the next "C", the next "E", then "I" again for the 4th byte, and so on.

You can use this method to encrypt anything you want. Emails, Passwords, Secret messages and so on. You'll definitely get a feel for it because things will get interesting after this challenge.

Let's dive in to the code:

Implementation of the method(s):

    
    //Convert ASCII to HEX
    string CryptoLib::con_ascii_2_hex(string str)
    {
        stringstream ss;
        for(int i=0; i<str.size(); i++)
        {
            ss << std::hex << (int)str[i];
        }
        return ss.str();
    }

    //Repeating Key XOR implementation
    string CryptoLib::repeatingKeyXOR(string str, string key)
    {
        string newStr = "";
        int count = 0;

        /*
            1. Perform XOR against each character of the message 
            against each character of the key. 
            So if the key was "ICE" and the message is "abcdefg",
            it would be "a" against "I", then "b" against "C" and "c" against "E"
            but once it reaches the key's limit, you start again from the beginning
            of the key, which should be like: "d" against "I", "e" against "C" and so on.
        */
        for(int i=0; i<str.size(); i++)
        {
            unsigned char a = key[count];
            unsigned char b = str[i];
            unsigned char c = b ^ a;

            newStr += c;

            if(count == key.size()-1)
            {
                count = 0;
            }
            else
            {
                count++;
            }
        }

        //2. Convert the ASCII message to Hexadecimal
        string final = "0";
        final += con_ascii_2_hex(newStr);
        return final;
    }
    

Final code:

    
    //Cryptopals Set 1 Challenge 5
    #include "crypto.h"

    int main()
    {
        CryptoLib crypt;

        //Test cases provided
        string str = "Burning 'em, if you ain't quick and nimble I go crazy when I hear a cymbal";
        string key = "ICE";

        cout << "ENCODED: " << crypt.repeatingKeyXOR(str, key) << endl;
        return 0;
    }
    

Note: This solution and the library named crypto.h was built using the C++ programming language. The source code for this solution can be found on Github.

Stay tuned for the next challenge!